Politics Turns Moral Foundations Into Consequences of Intergroup Attitudes

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Applying a longitudinal design, we tested the directions of the relationships between moral foundations and attitudes toward Muslim immigrants. The study was conducted during the official campaign period of the Hungarian parliamentary elections in It was found that moral foundations are consequences of intergroup attitudes.

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Latent change modeling showed that while individualizing foundations were independent anti aging stats gov anti-Muslim attitudes, longitudinal change in binding foundations was predicted by anti aging stats gov anti-Muslim attitudes, but not the other way around. Furthermore, this relationship was moderated by exposure to the anti-Muslim and anti-immigration campaigns led by the government.

These results suggest that people are motivated to harmonize their moral concerns with their prior social beliefs, and they actively utilize available political messages in this process.

The European Refugee Crisis that started in has undoubtedly had an effect on the political landscape of Europe. Fidesz has pursued an extremely harsh anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim agenda sincewhich may be the main reason for its domestic political success Bíró-Nagy, At least occasionally, people tend to modify their moral values to be in line with their other social beliefs like intergroup attitudesand while doing this, they rely on available morally relevant information.

Political campaigns can be unlimited resources of this kind of information, therefore being exposed to them can facilitate and tobrex szemcsepp ára how moral foundations anti aging stats gov moral consequences.

Moral Values and Intergroup Attitudes There has been a growing interest of research about the moral aspects of intergroup relations and attitudes e. According to MFT, moral judgments stem from intuitive, emotionally kocostar szemkörnyékápoló hidro tapasz processes that are based on an evolutionary designed and culturally fine-tuned psychological system.

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The main function of this system is to direct moral intuitions in a way that they prevent selfish behaviors and therefore ensure cooperation between individuals.

This goal is achieved by emphasizing certain moral foundations in these intuitive processes.

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Moral foundations represent different moral concerns serving as personal criteria in decisions about what is right and wrong. The theory describes five such foundations that are often categorized into two more extensive clusters of individualizing and binding foundations e. Individualizing foundations including care and fairness protect the community from individual selfishness by direct disapproval and prohibition of doing harm to others, and by making people respect the rights of other individuals.

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Binding foundations including loyalty, authority, and purity achieve this by binding people to cohesive groups and institutions, and by creating well-defined roles within these groups and their institutional systems. The main goal of the MFT was to provide an explanation for the essential moral value differences between social groups such as conservatives and liberals or members of collectivist and individualist cultures for review, see Graham et al.

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However, there has lately been a rapidly growing interest in how moral intuition, an immediate and non-argumentative form of moral judgment based on these two sets of moral foundations Haidt, can explain intergroup attitudes and preferences. There are several alternative explanations for these differences regarding the relationship between moral foundations and outgroup attitudes.

These differences can be explained by group-based exclusion and inclusion as consequences of individualizing and binding foundations.

People with stronger binding foundations are mainly concerned with the well-being of their ingroup and are less sensitive to the needs and problems of outgroup members, whereas those with stronger individualizing foundations do not make this strong group-based distinction and think about others in a more egalitarian way.

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Seemingly, they consider basic moral guidelines in a more universalistic manner e. Others highlight that the cohesion of the ingroup and adherence to its norms are of vital importance for people with strong binding foundations, that is why culturally different or non-conventional outgroups may be perceived as a potential source of threat to this cohesion and to the well-being of the ingroup e.

Accordingly, the above-cited explanations for the relationship between moral foundations and intergroup attitudes also consider moral foundations as actual foundations or causes of intergroup attitudes. Moral Foundations as Motivated Consequences of Social Beliefs Recently, multiple lines of research have questioned that moral foundations can be considered exclusively as actual foundations or causes of more specific social beliefs and started to emphasize that people can shift their moral values measured as moral foundations in order to satisfy temporary motivations.

Experimental research indicates that the need for group-justification is such a motivational factor. People tend to cultivate moral values that they think are cultivated by their ingroup and downplay the relevance of moral values that they think are cultivated by an anti aging stats gov outgroup Ciuk, They also tend to degrade moral values that were violated by their ingroup but upgrade those that were violated by an antagonistic outgroup or outgroup member Eriksson et al.

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Another line of research, relying on longitudinal cross-lagged panel studies Hatemi et al. Anti aging stats gov studies also reported weak test-retest stability of moral foundations scores and suggested that moral foundations are context-dependent states rather than dispositional traits, and as such, they are posterior moral justifications of ideological preferences.

Finally, the third line of research investigated the role of intergroup threat. It was found that binding morality intensifies at the expense of individualizing morality if the ingroup is perceived to be threatened by an outgroup Van de Vyver et al.

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These results were explained by the idea that binding foundations can be effective tools for restoring or enhancing group-based security. Taken together these results indicate that moral values and priorities can change in line with our prior outgroup attitudes, and also with the way we precisely perceive a particular outgroup.

If we do not like an outgroup, and we perceive it as violating certain moral values, we can be motivated to overemphasize those values to rationalize our initial negative feelings. The main message of the campaign was that mass-immigration from Muslim countries is the most severe threat to Hungary and Europe.

Politics Turns Moral Foundations Into Consequences of Intergroup Attitudes | Social Psychology

According to the narrative of the Fidesz campaign, immigration from Muslim countries is planned and organized by George Soros, a Hungarian-American billionaire with the help of NGOs and Hungarian and European liberal political actors whom he personally financed.

The explicit message of the campaign was that their plan was to disintegrate traditionally Christian European nation-states by arranging the immigration of a great number of Muslim people Bajomi-Lázár, ; Bíró-Nagy, Within this campaign, values directly reflecting binding moral foundations were strongly emphasized.

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According to the narrative of the Hungarian government, immigration from Muslim countries destroys the cohesiveness of European nations and their cultural heritage, which fits in with the notion of MFT emphasizing that the primary use of binding foundations is the maintenance of ingroup cohesion Graham et al.

Because of the thematic mismatch of the campaigns, and because Fidesz had significantly larger access to national media, than the opposition i.

Current flag[ edit ] The modern flag of Hungary originated from the national freedom movement from beforewhich culminated in the Hungarian Revolution anti aging fordított The revolution was not only in opposition against the monarchy but also the Habsburg Empireas well as to form an independent republic. Accordingly, the Hungarian flag features a tricolour element, which is based upon the French flagas a reflection of the ideas of the French revolution ; while red, white, and green are colours derived from the historical Hungarian coat of armswhich have essentially remained in the same form since the midth century, with exception to some minor differences, and were marshalled from arms that first appeared in the late 12th and early 13th century as arms of the ÁrpádsHungary's founding dynasty. The stripes are horizontal rather than vertical to prevent confusion with the Italian flag despite the banner in that form predating the Italian tricolour by at least 7 years but unlike in Italy, the Italians adopted it as the flag of an Italian state in

We assumed that people can shift their moral values based on their initial intergroup attitudes, and this shift is influenced by how the media frames the behavior of the outgroup. More precisely, we hypothesized that people with a negative initial attitude toward Muslim immigrants will increase their binding morality, and this relationship will be stronger in case of intense exposure to the campaign since this campaign heavily emphasized how Muslim immigrants threaten and violate binding moral aspects.

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As it seems that in the case of perceived intergroup threat binding morality intensifies at the expense of individualizing morality, we tested also whether the same moderation is true in the case of individualizing morality. Nevertheless, we did not rule out the possibility that moral foundations can also work as actual foundations of intergroup attitudes, consequently, we checked the temporal relationship between moral foundations and outgroup attitudes in both directions.

Lastly, we also hypothesized that if there is a longitudinal relationship between moral foundations Time 1 and outgroup attitude Time 2campaign exposure would moderate that relationship too, and this relationship would be stronger for those who followed the campaign more closely.

The Study To test these hypotheses, we conducted a two-wave longitudinal survey study during the official campaign period of the Hungarian parliamentary elections held in the spring of This design enabled us to test the temporal directions between moral foundations and intergroup attitudes and to test which of these variables is the longitudinal antecedent of a change in the other. This longitudinal design also made it possible to check the moderating role of campaign exposure between the two waves of data collection.

The two waves were administered in the first and the last week of the official campaign period of the parliamentary elections, which took place between February 17 and April 8. The administered questionnaires were part of an omnibus survey that we conducted online using the Qualtrics software.

We anti aging stats gov all measures for variables related to the research question.