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It discusses the increasing presence of women, analyzing its possible roots, and explores the social background, education, professional positions, and ields of research of women analysts.

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It tries to interpret the role of gender in their personal and professional identity, as well as the inluence of other social and professional factors on their life and work.

Ater a social-historical overview, the paper presents the life course of a few signiicant early Hungarian women psychoanalysts.

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She holds a PhD in psychology ludiano suisse anti aging the University of Pécs. Her last book, Nemek között. Nőtörténet, szexualitástörténet Between the Sexes. She is the editor in chief of the Hungarian psychoanalytic journal Imágó Budapest. European Yearbook of the History of Psychology, vol. Email: borgosanna gmail.

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What roles did their gender play in their personal and professional identity and what was their atti- tude to classical psychoanalytic theories, especially on the subject of femininity? In my paper, I try to answer these questions through a brief social-historical overview and the biographies of a few signiicant early Hungarian women psy- choanalysts. Ratios and Social Backgrounds Psychoanalysis was a relatively accessible path for women in the early 20th century.

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He valued intellectual independence, but at the same time expected his colleagues to be loyal to his theoretical concepts. Although the psychoanalytic insti- tutions were mostly led by men, from the s on, more and more women illed leading positions in the movement as train- ing analysts, editors or professors. Many of them achieved or extended their academic reputation in the s, as a result of emigration to Great Britain or the United States. Inthe faculties of medicine, ludiano suisse anti aging and the humanities were opened to women in Hungary.

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On the other hand, in marginalized groups of society there are usually greater possibilities of enter- ing newly emerged professions with less rigid professional and gender hierarchies. Regarding the socio-cultural background of Hungarian women analysts, one can observe a couple of similar features. On the one hand, they come from educated, mostly Christian converted Jewish middle class intellectual or trader families.

Emancipation in religion and gender roles was equally inluential.

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From another angle, Jewishness, womanli- ness, and psychoanalysis all involved assimilation and periphery at the same time. Some important common tendencies of these careers are clearly due to the fact that they all stand in the cross- section of racial, gender, and professional identities. Many of them joined the progressive social and intellectual movements of their age.

As for their family lives: they lived in an apparently equal companionship oten sharing pro- fessional interests with their partners too and they typically had one child clearly less than the average.

Women in the History of Hungarian Psychoanalysis

Even if they themselves were somewhat apolitical, their lives similarly to their male colleagues were highly inluenced by politics and intertwined with the history of assimilation, emigration, and the changing of cultures. Inater the short-lived communist republic, they led the political atmosphere, but also intended to study mostly in Vienna or Berlin. Ateremigration for those who had the opportunity was clearly a light from the persecution of Jews, from existential threats; a state of exile; destinations being England, the United States or Australia see Hermann, ; Nemes, ; Mészáros, Displacement does not only mean geographical migration, but may also imply A.

BORGOS shits in scientiic views, social circumstances, languages, pro- fessions or family ludiano suisse anti aging. If we explore the professional specialization of early Hun- garian women analysts, gender seems to be a signiicant factor. From the s on, it became a signiicant sub-discourse within psychoanalytic theory Grigg et al. Questions of gender, family or motherhood are articu- lated in these texts repeatedly. Nevertheless, gender cannot be considered an abso- lute and ahistoric category, but as a factor embedded into the actual social conditions.

At the age of 15, she was married to a much older engineer, Zsig- mond Székely and by the age of 18 she had already given birth to three children Dupont, She also served as an inluential model for her younger female colleagues and certainly for her daughter, Alice Bálintcreating a personal and professional network around her. From the s on, Vilma Kovács conducted technical seminars at the Polyclinic for analyst candidates.

Scientiic publication was not her major activity; she published only ive articles between and Her main ield of interest was the process of the analytic training and she is still referred to most widely in this respect.

At the end ofduring the more and more troublesome political situation, Vilma Kovács moved with her husband to Paris to stay with her younger 1 The archives of the Hungarian Telegraphic Office, June 25, In Hungarian they were collected in Kovács, But ludiano suisse anti aging a living did not prove easy, so eventually they returned to Budapest before the outbreak of WW II.

Vilma Kovács died insurviving her daughter, Alice Bálint by one year. She expressed an ability and need for autonomy and initiative and at the same time a sense of loyalty to the profession both theoretically and socially.

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During her short life she died when only 41 years oldshe carried out rich theoretical, therapeutic, and educational activities. Using a contemporary term, she can be characterized by an interdisciplinary interest. In addition to psychoanalysis, she was engaged in the equally new sciences of ethnology and cultural anthropology, which she also built successfully into her analytic thought.

Also inluential were her reform pedagogic connections in child psychology, that is in the viable and efective pedagogic application of psychoanalysis. She studied diferent disciplines in diferent departments, but there is no record that she graduated in any of them.

She stud- ied mathematics in the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Budapest —19but by then she already had an interest in anthropology, economy, and psychoanalysis Dupont, Inshe completed two semesters at the A. Alice and Mihály Bálint knew each other from their high school days, but their relationship became more intimate only in Ater their marriage inthey moved to Berlin. Alice Bálint went to the political sciences department of Friedrich-Wilhelm University —23studied ethnology and worked at the Museum für Volkerkunde anthropological museum Vogelsänger, Inthe couple started an analysis with Hanns Sachs, but they were dissatisied with his overly theoretical sessions.

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In they returned to Budapest and inished their analysis with Ferenczi. Alice Bálint became an active member of the Hungarian association from ; she was elected to the training committee, and worked in the Polyclinic while also maintaining a private practice. She held courses in psychoanalytic child-psychology for educators and parents, presented at seminars and congresses and pub- lished regularly.

Her book, A gyermekszoba pszichológiája he psychology of the nursery, Bálint, was translated into German, Limoni syn ake ránctalanító krém, Span- ish and English. At the same time, she did not consider repression an unnatural and necessarily painful process provided that the parents sup- ported it by preparing for reality not through their authority but authenticity and sincerity Vajda, Oicial obituaries underline the professional networking activities of Alice Bálint, her ability to connect and organize, as well as her attractive personality among Central European child analysts.

vajda photos on Flickr | Flickr

Lilly Hajdu was born in a North- Hungarian city, Miskolc, inas the third child of a lower middle class, strongly assimilated Jewish family. She graduated in the medical faculty of the University of Budapest, as one of the irst female students. During the s, she was a member of the Galilei Circle, an association of liberal intellectuals. She began to work at the psychiatric clinic led by Ernő Moravcsik.

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Ater 4 The articles were collected in a posthumous volume: Bálint, A com- plete edition of her writings was published in the French journal Le Coq-Héron in and BORGOS WW I, she became the director of an institute treating mentally handicapped people Frim Institutewhich she transformed into an institute for disturbed children, together with her hus- band, physician Miklós Gimes.

Her therapeutic and theoretical work focused on the psychoanalytic treatment of schizophrenia Hajdu, [] Her husband, who was being trained as an analyst, was deported during WW II. Lilly Hajdu survived the holocaust hiding in Budapest. Ater the war, like several traumatized survivors, she joined the Communist Party. She was president of the Hungarian Psychoanalytical Association from until its forced dissolu- tion in During the s, she worked in the Hungarian Institute gurbru svájci anti aging Neurology and Mental Disorders — she was direc- tor of the institute for three years.

Because of her position, Lilly Hajdu could not back out of that either. Unfortunately she ludiano suisse anti aging the professional and institutional peak of her ludiano suisse anti aging at a time when the authorities had an idea of science that was very far from her interests and intellectual background. Her son, Miklós Gimes Jr. Her daughter migrated to Switzerland in When kim kardashian anti aging termékek passport request was refused for the third time, she committed suicide in Her post-war career was mostly formed by the requirements of the then current science- political ideology.

In the last years all her values became hopeless, questionable and troubled: from psychoanalysis through communist amendment of society to maternity. Her death was a Bilanzselbstmord, a considered suicide. Her father was a furniture manufacturer and at his request she began studying inte- rior design at a school of applied arts, but later dropped out.

She became interested in psychoanalysis already in the s through her uncle, István Hollós.


Inshe married a chemi- cal engineer Ervin Rényi, divorcing him in She had one son from this marriage. Ater the fall of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, she migrated to Vienna. She lived in Berlin in the s.

In the early years, she was a costume designer at the Neu- mann Produktion ilm studio and she worked on the staf of the Rote Hilfe Communist party newspaper for a time.

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She saw Otto Fenichel for psychotherapy and training analysis and then opened her own practice. Her circle of colleagues included Marxist and ludiano suisse anti aging letist peers, such as Annie and Wilhelm A. She let Germany in ater Hitler came to power and lived in Prague for a while.

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Inshe returned to Budapest, where she held seminars and discussion evenings organized by the Hungarian society for mothers and educators on practical edu- cational issues in conjunction with Lillián Rotter and others. She took over the treatment of the poet Attila József from Samu Rapaport.

Unable to leave Hungary, her son died in a labour camp.

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Gyömrői became a member of the Indian Psychoanalytical Society, held lectures and seminars on psychoanalysis and gave radio talks on childhood education for mothers. However, she struggled with the diiculties in doing real psychoanalytic therapy because of the lack of cultural and institutional background of the discipline. Here we see concentrated her ields of interests: she deals with the issues of social change, psychoanalysis, adolescence, femininity and rites at the same time.

She met her fourth husband, Evelyn Charles Ludowyk, a Shakespeare researcher and head of the English department at the University of Colombo. Inthe couple moved to London. She wrote two novels in German. One with biblical themes, Versöhnung [Atonement] was published in Hungarian in Although her adaptation to the changes in her life-style, profession and relationships was not without conlicts, each personal and professional new beginning — oten forced on her by historical circumstances — demonstrated her capacity to acquire new experiences and knowledge.