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It is characterised significantly by openness to novelties and high perceived risk. Men of the sample are members mostly of this cluster.
Shopping is not a good experience for them; they do not even plan purchase in advance. Although they are uncertain in connection with an unknown good because of risk, they do not stick to accustomed stores and products. Although they feel an unknown product to be risky they do not stick to accustomed store or product.
As they do not rely on branding or pricing to judge the quality of an unknown product they are open to try retail brands. Good experiences after trial generated that this group became the most intensive private label buyer. Their proneness is explained by their low income per capita and need for variety.
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Low income and neutrality towards extrinsic cues lead to the conclusion that they also buy private labels which are sold under the store name. As they use car or bike besides public transport to do shopping they can easier access hypermarkets and discounters placed outside the city. Besides their relatively high income they are extremely price sensitive. They pay attention to store promotions and compare prices even in stores.
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According to their opinion quality is not depending on price at all. They like their accustomed stores and products.
They access store by public transport or on foot. They feel that searching in the shop is a good experience. They enhance variety with consumption of pszichoshop suisse anti aging labels.
They do not feel ambiguity while shopping, and do not perceive high risk. This group relies the most on branding while judging product quality in advance. Since they are price conscious, it is important for them that a product is cheap, but they also expect to have a brand name to ensure quality.
Members of this group also buy private labels. Based on the terms before they search for fancy named ones.
They have the lowest income level among the groups. It is most probably caused by their typical age and education level. They are at the border of becoming a senior citizen, and their middle class education does no allow luxuriating in brands and products. They are planning their purchases to avoid impulse shopping.
They buy accustomed products in accustomed stores as they are not open to novelties. This fact may be caused by their age.
They perceive extremely high risk while shopping. They try to decrease it by planning and sticking to routine. They do pszichoshop suisse anti aging trust in gloss of brand names. If they must buy something new they try to judge quality by pricing in advance.
They access store by public transport or on foot because of their low income. They like private labels. Based on their characteristics they purchase the lowest priced ones, which carry the name of the store and fancy named ones with low price level. This group has the highest income level. They access stores by car or bike. It is understandable that their price sensitiveness is the lowest.
They consider it to be important how a product looks like. In case of an unknown product quality is primarily guaranteed for them by high price.
They stick to their accustomed products and stores. Oppositely to the third cluster the reason behind is not age but the need of big brand names. They are in some degree open to novelties besides perceived risk.
Their income level and level of search for novelties does not justify private brand purchase. Since they trust in big brand names and have the lowest price sensitiveness and price consciousness they might consider private brands with fancy names which have high price level, and offer a special product promise organic, fitness, free from, ecological, fair trade etc. This private brand may even be priced premium to producer brands. Until such type of private brands pszichoshop suisse anti aging not spread this group will not become a significant own label buyer.
It would have been a very good data base to allow multivariate linear regression. Thus prediction would be unreliable. For this reason I analysed independent variables separately. Significance of F statistics was 0, in case of Power distance, 0,66 in case of Individualism, 0, for Masculinity, 0, for Uncertainty avoidance and 0, for Long term orientation.
In case these values were pszichoshop suisse anti aging, determining coefficients are very low. Based on the results both hypothesis H13 and H14 must have been rejected. According to results we can not set aside how long own labels are present in a country.
It can be important how much consumer know own labels, since when they are available and how much consumer trust producer brands. Differences in spending power and price advantage svájci anti aging aar származású private brands may also affect comparison. I think primarily on the current economic crisis, and its effect on many other factors like retail consolidation.
Results of the analysis of my hypothesis: H1: Households with growing income per capita buy less private label — rejected. My result is in full concordance with those of international academic researches and market research companies. Private labels are bought by both low and high income per capita households. Two reasons are behind.
Firstly own labels are on the market with many different positioning.
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Secondly shoppers prefer these brands compared to producer brands according to their involvement in the given product category. H2: Size of household affects private label purchase — accepted.
Воспринятая им, стала постепенно менять его взгляды, раскрывая перед ним новые горизонты. Ему все еще не верилось в то, что когда-нибудь он сможет ступить за пределы Диаспара, но зато теперь он вполне понимал те побудительные причины, которые заставили Олвина пойти на все. Вопрос председателя застал его врасплох, однако он тотчас собрался с -- Полагаю,-- сказал он,-- что такая ситуация в прошлом не возникла ни разу лишь в силу чистой случайности. Нам ведь известно, что существовало четырнадцать Неповторимых и что за их творением стоял какой-то совершенно определенный план.
Statistical analyses showed that the two factors are connected although the relationship did not show a tendency. Since the effect of household size would come forward in decreasing income per capita and this factor was rejected in H1, result of H2 is important.
Bigger households look for bigger product size because of lower unit price and because they consume the product before it expires but this means a higher amount out of pocket. This is the reason why it is important for them to buy a cheaper own label. H3: Higher education level of the household-keeper causes higher private label purchase — rejected.
Education of household-keeper has an effect generally on the income level, and indirectly on own label purchase. This is to reject based on H1. Secondly higher education could influence buyer to judge a product rather based on intrinsic cues than extrinsic ones. Interpretation ability of the ingredient list and knowledge about producers is more expected from someone with higher education. All this did not prove to be significant. H4: Age of household-keeper affects private label purchase — accepted.
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Ageing goes hand in hand with changing household life cycles. Consumer is first a single household than a couple, 18 afterwards a family with children and elderly single. The stages are characterised by different income per capita level and different consumption situations which can influence selection between producer or nagy felbontású ránctalanító krém brands.
According to the result of pszichoshop suisse anti aging research age and own label purchase are in connection. No tendency can be found what is understandable if one takes into account that household size first grows than decreases with ageing.
H5: Women household-keepers are more prone to purchase private label than men — rejected. I assumed at the beginning of my research that women who are primary household-keepers have bigger practice in purchasing and do more comparison while shopping. Data did not support my expectations.
Household size and age of household-keeper proved to have statistically significant effect on private label purchase from demographic elements. Sex and education of the householdkeeper or income per capita does not affect it.
Regarding image of own labels I have to mention that I expected demographic factors to be more important. H6: Private label purchase grows with price sensitiveness - accepted. Nonetheless either income per capita or education influenced by it proved to be significant price sensitiveness is an important factor in retail brand purchase.
This revealed in both searching for price information in advance and taking store promotions into account.
I conclude that income and all factors influencing it shows its effect indirectly through price sensitiveness.
H7: Routine in private labels causes higher purchase willingness - accepted. Since firstly launched private labels displayed very poor quality in Hungary it took much time and many very good quality new retail brands to transform image in peoples mind. Negative feelings towards own labels decrease with familiarity and trial improves the opinion about quality. Probability of repurchase increases not only for the given product but also improves the chance of own labels in general.
H8: Consumer involvement in product category has an impact on private label purchase - accepted. According to my result the connection between these two factors is traceable. There are product categories divergent by individuals where consumers assign higher importance to the quality guarantee of producer branding.
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H9: The more important store accessibility is, the more likely one pszichoshop suisse anti aging private label - accepted. Access of a store is good according to öregedésgátló krémek 30 éveseknek if it can be reached by both public transport and store bus.
I conclude that households with lower income, who do not necessarily use a car for shopping and those buying rather smaller quantities but more often, do their shopping in such stores. This thought leads back to the influence of income already mentioned before.
H10a: Low store loyalty causes low private label purchase — rejected. Store loyalty does not influence appeal of retail brands based on data. Hypothesis H10b can be partly accepted, low chain loyalty increases number of known private label brand names.
Magyar Dermatológiai Társulat
Second part of the hypothesis: low store loyalty increases the number of bought private brands — must have been rejected. Store loyalty shows a high level year-by-year in Hungary according to results of the 19 ig market research companies. Based on my results it can be forecasted that similarly to producer brands where consumer are loyal to a brand repertoire the same will happen with own labels.
Consumers select brands at more chains and become loyal to this range. H Consumers rely less on extrinsic cues to judge quality of a product pszichoshop suisse anti aging growing private label routine - accepted. Importance of familiarity was indicated already at the acceptance of H7.
In H11 I examined not the direct effect on private label purchase but the effect on judgement of a product based on extrinsic cues.
H Quality oriented private labels are better accepted by consumer - accepted. Private labels had a bad image in the first period because Tesco launched its brand with a very poor quality. Since Tesco had a big market share already at that time, many consumer met these products.
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Enthusiasm caused by low price decreased quickly because of quality. It is to thank only to much time, many marketing efforts and new own brands that this image changed. H The more a national culture is characterized with uncertainty avoidance, high power distance, collectivism and masculinity the less private label is purchased in the country — rejected. H The more a national culture is long term oriented the more private label is purchased in the country — rejected.
Direct effect of national cultures was not supported. Three of them work in significant producer companies food, household care and personal care and one of them at a retailer. Since none of these companies allowed identification I display the results anonymously and synthesised.
Based on research data of the companies two typical consumer groups buy private labels. They have different motivations. The first one prefers low prices Tesco Value, Spar Budget and copycats.